1. Introduction: Progress that merely enhances the economic growth rather than transforming the lives of the masses is considered as a lopsided development.

    2. Francis Fukuyama believes that there are six dimensions of development:

    i Existence of a modern state

    ii. Law and order

    iii. Social mobility

    iv. Economic growth

    v. Accountability and transparency

    vi. Legitimate system of government

    3. Millennium Development and Sustainable Development Goals designed by the United Nations further augment the concept that development entails social aspects along with economic aspects of a national life.

    4. India’s and Nigeria’s impressive economic growth in the absence of social mobility is labelled as ‘growth without development’.

    5. Well-meaning development depends on inclusive institutions.

    Countries where institutions are inclusive have shown holistic progress in all six dimensions of development.

    Case Study of Pakistan

    Conclusion: Progress in economy or any other walk of national life needs to up-grade living standards of the masses to ensure development in its true essence.


    Development encompasses economic, social and environmental progress. Progress in one field at the cost of other two is not development. Progress that merely enhances the economic growth rather than transforming the lives of people is considered as a lopsided development. Economic growth is meaningless if people do not have enough food to cat, facilities to get education and healthcare. Francis Fukuyama believes that these are six dimensions of development: the existence of modern state, social mobility, economic growth, law and order, accountability and legitimacy. Moreover, developmental goals launched by United Nations in 2015 in the form of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) also encompass all aspects of life starting from poverty alleviation to better environment for living beings. Targets set in SDGs do not merely focus on economic growth instead their focus is on improving the lives of people across the globe. This further augmented the concept that development does not simply depend on economic growth; in fact, it is contingent on social stability. For instance, countries like India and Nigeria that are showing impressive growth over the years have depressing social indicators. Owing to which political philosophers do not consider their economic growth as development. To ensure a sustainable development in its true essence, inclusive institutions are required to take into account the interests and welfare of the masses. Along these lines, economic growth can be transformed in achieving development.

    Francis Fukuyama emphasises that development does not mean the improvement in GDP growth or per capita income alone. These economic indicators do not show the holistic picture of a society. They can show improvement even if a certain segment of a society is progressing while the standard of living and economic situation of masses are stagnant or even deteriorating. Thus, development cannot be judged on the basis of economic growth alone. Instead, for development a comprehensive benchmark is needed, which has been set by Fukuyama as having six dimensions that ensure sustainable development. Without progressing in all these six dimensions the development will remain elusive.

    Firstly, the foremost prerequisite of development is the existence of modern state. In the absence of a state development is meaningless. By definition, state is a political organization having monopoly over violence in a certain territory. Thereby, if in a country where there are non-state actors who create violence at their will, it means that the writ of the state is weak or there does not exist a state.

    Secondly, rule of law and development go hand in hand. Without rule of law the fruits of progress are reaped by the elites at the cost of the masses. People with power and influence get undue benefits out of economic progress. In this way, a certain segment of a society is at advantage leaving other segments underprivileged. The rich get richer and the poor become

    poorer Conversely, rule of law ensures equal rights and opportunities for all. Merit-based. 34

    decisions are taken instead of encouraging nepotism and favouritism. People are not vald owing to their status but because of their skills and competency. As a result, the society wa whole progresses uniformly which transforms economic and political progress into development

    Thirdly, development which does not ensure social mobility is no development at all. Social mobility can be ensured by improving literacy rate, up-grading living standards of masses and modernizing the health sector. This would only be possible if the state invest in social sector according to its economic success. Otherwise, disparity between haves and have-nots will reach to the alarming level making economic growth a curse instead of a blessing.

    Fourthly, economic growth is just one of many dimensions of development. No doubt, having encouraging economic indicators like GDP growth and per capita income is commendable. However, if a country is progressing economically but lagging behind on social indicators like literacy rate, employment ratio, health, sanitation and gender equality then this pattern could be called growth without development. Precisely speaking, economic growth which leads to transformation of the living standards of people is development.

    Fifthly, accountability limits the excesses of privileged class to earn the undue dividends of development. It ensures an equitable distribution of shares of development among all the segments of the society. It ensures that the key decisions are taken in the best interest of the masses. Budgetary allocation is made in such a way that the general public gets maximum advantage out of it. In a society, interests of elite and the masses do not match generally Accountability safeguards the interests of the majority that helps in converting the progress in all fields of a national life may it be economic, political or social into development.

    Lastly, it is believed that a nation which aspires for development must have a legitimate system of government; whose authority is respected by all the stakeholders. A legitimate government can rule well and can implement its decisions and policies. People and administration are constitutionally bound to follow the directions given by a legitimate government. When all the institutions are working in their constitutional domain, development is the outcome. Otherwise, an illegitimate government is unacceptable for the masses. Therefore, it has to be coercive in its approach which creates chaos in a society. Under such circumstances, development and progress remain stagnant.

    Similarly, developmental goals set by United Nations in the shape of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000 and later on, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 support the argument that development is about transforming the lives of people rather than economies. In both the plans, the main focus was on improving the living standard of people around the globe. In the former plan, there were eight developmental goals to be achieved in the next 15 years. The goals were: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, to achieve universal primary education, to promote gender equality and empower women, to reduce child mortality, to improve maternal health, to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, to ensure

    environmental sustainability, and to develop a global partnership for development.

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